1. How does the Indian Parliament exert control over the executive?
The Indian Parliament exerts control over the executive through various mechanisms established by the Constitution. These mechanisms include legislative, financial, and oversight powers that enable Parliament to hold the executive accountable for its actions and decisions.
2. What is the role of the Lok Sabha in controlling the executive?
The Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, plays a crucial role in controlling the executive. It exercises its legislative powers by making laws and scrutinizing the government’s legislative proposals. Additionally, it can also pass motions of no confidence against the executive, thereby exerting control.
3. How does the Rajya Sabha control the executive?
The Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament, also plays a significant role in controlling the executive. It reviews and debates bills passed by the Lok Sabha, which ensures that the executive is accountable to both houses of Parliament. The Rajya Sabha can propose amendments, reject bills, and initiate legislation as well.
4. Does Parliament have control over the executive’s budget?
Yes, Parliament has control over the executive’s budget. The executive presents the annual budget to Parliament, and members have the authority to examine and scrutinize it. They can propose amendments, recommend changes, and approve or reject the budget. This ensures that the executive remains accountable for its financial decisions.
5. What power does Parliament hold in terms of legislation?
Parliament holds the power to legislate and make laws. The executive proposes bills, but they require the approval of Parliament to become laws. Both houses of Parliament review, debate, and amend bills to ensure they are comprehensive and cater to the needs of the citizens. This legislative power is a means through which Parliament controls the executive.
6. How does Parliament conduct oversight over the executive?
Parliament conducts oversight over the executive through various mechanisms such as question hour, debates, and parliamentary committees. Members of Parliament can raise questions to hold the executive accountable for its actions. Parliamentary committees review the executive’s work, policies, and performance, ensuring transparency and accountability.
7. Can Parliament remove the executive from office?
Yes, Parliament can remove the executive from office through a motion of no confidence. If a majority of members vote in favor of the motion, the executive has to resign. This power gives Parliament the ability to exert control and ensure the executive remains accountable for its actions.
8. What role do parliamentary debates play in controlling the executive?
Parliamentary debates are integral to controlling the executive. They serve as a platform for members to express their opinions, scrutinize government policies, and hold the executive accountable for its decisions. By providing a forum for open discussion, debates contribute to a system of checks and balances, strengthening parliamentary control over the executive.
9. How does Parliament ensure the executive’s compliance with laws?
Parliament ensures the executive’s compliance with laws through regular monitoring, questioning procedures, and the presence of parliamentary committees. These mechanisms allow Parliament to investigate executive actions, discuss any potential non-compliance, and take necessary corrective measures to enforce the rule of law.
10. Explain the role of parliamentary committees in controlling the executive.
Parliamentary committees play a crucial role in controlling the executive. They are specialized bodies formed to oversee specific areas of the executive’s functioning. Through in-depth inquiries, examination of policies, and recommendations, these committees ensure transparency, accountability, and effective control over the executive.
11. Can the President veto Parliament’s decisions?
The President of India, as the ceremonial head of state, has a limited veto power over Parliament’s decisions. The President can return a bill for reconsideration once, but if Parliament passes it again, the President cannot veto it. However, the President generally acts on the advice of the executive, making the scope of this power limited.
12. How does Parliament ensure executive accountability in emergency situations?
During emergency situations, Parliament still maintains its role in controlling the executive. The President can proclaim an emergency, but it requires Parliamentary approval within one month. Even during emergencies, Parliament can question and scrutinize the executive’s actions, ensuring accountability remains intact.
13. Does the judiciary play a role in controlling the executive?
Yes, the judiciary plays a role in controlling the executive. The Indian judiciary acts as an independent and impartial umpire, interpreting the Constitution and laws. It can declare executive actions unlawful or unconstitutional, thereby holding the executive accountable and restraining its power.
14. How do parliamentary elections affect executive control?
Parliamentary elections significantly impact executive control. The composition of Parliament directly affects the balance of power between the legislature and the executive. Electing suitable representatives with the ability to hold the executive accountable strengthens parliamentary control and ensures the government remains answerable to the people.
15. Can Parliament amend or repeal executive orders?
Yes, Parliament can amend or repeal executive orders. Executive orders have the force of law, but they can be superseded by legislation passed by Parliament. Through the legislative process, Parliament can modify or revoke executive orders, reinforcing its control over the executive.
16. What is the significance of a vote of no confidence in controlling the executive?
A vote of no confidence holds significant significance in controlling the executive. If supported by a majority of members, it forces the executive to resign, indicating a loss of confidence in its policies and actions. This power allows Parliament to assert control and ensures the executive remains accountable.
17. Can the President declare an ordinance without Parliament’s approval?
Yes, the President can declare an ordinance without Parliament’s approval in cases of urgent circumstances. However, the ordinance must be presented to Parliament for approval within six weeks. If Parliament does not approve it, the ordinance expires, highlighting the ultimate control that Parliament exercises over executive actions.
18. Does the Indian Parliament control the appointment of key executive officials?
Yes, the Indian Parliament has a significant say in the appointment of key executive officials. The appointments of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and other crucial positions are subject to parliamentary approval. This ensures that the executive is accountable to Parliament and its decisions are scrutinized.
19. How does Parliament control the executive’s foreign policy decisions?
Parliament controls the executive’s foreign policy decisions through its oversight and legislative powers. The executive is obliged to inform Parliament about its foreign policy decisions and actions. Parliament can debate and question these decisions, enabling control over the executive’s international engagements.
20. How does Parliament ensure fairness in the executive’s decision-making process?
Parliament ensures fairness in the executive’s decision-making process through procedures such as question hour, debates, and the functioning of parliamentary committees. These mechanisms allow members to scrutinize decisions, investigate potential biases, and ensure that the executive’s decision-making is transparent, accountable, and fair.
21. How does Parliament control the executive’s emergency powers?
Parliament controls the executive’s emergency powers by mandating that the President’s proclamation of emergency requires Parliamentary approval within one month. Additionally, Parliament can question and scrutinize the executive’s actions during an emergency, ensuring proper utilization and accountability of emergency powers.
22. What are some challenges faced by Parliament in controlling the executive?
Some challenges faced by Parliament in controlling the executive include limited time available for scrutiny, political alliances affecting decision-making, and the need for diligent monitoring to avoid misuse of power. Additionally, adherence to party lines and lack of consensus among members can hinder effective control over the executive.
23. How does the Indian Parliament promote transparency in the executive’s functioning?
The Indian Parliament promotes transparency in the executive’s functioning through mechanisms like question hour, debates, and the Right to Information Act. These allow members to obtain information, seek clarification, and create public awareness about the executive’s actions, ensuring transparency and accountability.
24. What is the impact of media scrutiny on controlling the executive?
Media scrutiny plays a crucial role in controlling the executive. The media acts as a watchdog, bringing executive actions and decisions into the public domain. Exposure of any malpractice, corruption, or inefficiency enhances accountability and puts pressure on the executive to rectify its actions, thereby strengthening control.
25. Can public protests influence Parliament’s control over the executive?
Yes, public protests can influence Parliament’s control over the executive. Mass demonstrations and public pressure can bring issues to the forefront and force Parliament to address them. Protests can lead to debates, discussions, and legislative action, thereby influencing the executive and promoting accountability.