1. What are biogeographical regions?
Biogeographical regions refer to large areas of the Earth’s surface that share similar ecosystems, climate, and geographical features, supporting specific collections of plants and animals.
2. How many biogeographical regions are there in India?
India is divided into ten distinct biogeographical regions based on its geographic and ecological diversity.
3. What are the names of the biogeographical regions in India?
The biogeographical regions in India are the Trans-Himalaya, Himalaya, Desert, Semi-arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plain, Northeast India, Coastal, and Andaman-Nicobar Islands.
4. What is the Trans-Himalayan biogeographical region?
The Trans-Himalayan region in India comprises the high-altitude areas of Ladakh, Lahaul-Spiti, and parts of Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh. It is characterized by cold deserts, alpine meadows, and unique adaptations of flora and fauna to extreme conditions.
5. Which regions fall under the Himalayan biogeographical region?
The Himalayan biogeographical region covers the entire stretch of the Indian Himalayas, including Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and parts of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It showcases diverse habitats ranging from alpine meadows to temperate and subtropical forests.
6. What characterizes the Desert biogeographical region in India?
The Desert biogeographical region encompasses the arid and semi-arid regions of western India, such as Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat. It is characterized by extreme temperatures, sparse vegetation, sand dunes, and specific desert-adapted plant and animal species.
7. What defines the Semi-arid biogeographical region in India?
The Semi-arid biogeographical region covers areas that receive less rainfall than the surrounding regions but are not as arid as the deserts. It includes parts of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka. Vegetation in this region consists of dry thorn forests, grasslands, and scrublands.
8. What regions are part of the Western Ghats biogeographical region?
The Western Ghats biogeographical region encompasses the entire stretch of the Western Ghats mountain range along the western coast of India, passing through states like Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala. It is renowned for its high biological diversity, tropical rainforests, and endemic plant and animal species.
9. What is the Deccan Peninsula biogeographical region?
The Deccan Peninsula biogeographical region covers the central and southern parts of India, including parts of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. It consists of diverse landscapes, including plateaus, forests, grasslands, and coastal plains.
10. Which areas fall under the Gangetic Plain biogeographical region?
The Gangetic Plain biogeographical region encompasses the fertile alluvial plains of the river Ganges (Ganga) and its tributaries, spanning across states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal. It supports extensive agriculture and hosts several wildlife sanctuaries and wetlands.
11. What characterizes the Northeast India biogeographical region?
The Northeast India biogeographical region comprises the seven sister states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Tripura, along with Sikkim. It is known for its high rainfall, tropical rainforests, biodiversity hotspots, and endemic species.
12. Which regions are part of the Coastal biogeographical region in India?
The Coastal biogeographical region includes the coastal areas of India, comprising states like Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal. It showcases unique mangrove ecosystems, coral reefs, estuaries, and sandy beaches.
13. What is unique about the Andaman-Nicobar Islands biogeographical region?
The Andaman-Nicobar Islands biogeographical region consists of the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands located in the Bay of Bengal. These islands are home to rich biodiversity, including tropical rainforests, endemic species, and coral reefs.
14. How do these biogeographical regions impact India’s biodiversity?
The diverse biogeographical regions of India contribute significantly to the country’s rich biodiversity. They support a wide range of flora and fauna with distinct adaptations to their unique habitats, fostering high endemism and ecological balance.
15. What are some iconic species found in the Himalayan biogeographical region?
The Himalayan biogeographical region is known for its iconic species such as the snow leopard, Himalayan tahr, red panda, musk deer, Himalayan monal, and numerous species of rhododendrons and orchids.
16. Which endangered species inhabit the Western Ghats biogeographical region?
The Western Ghats biogeographical region is home to several endangered species, including the Nilgiri tahr, Lion-tailed macaque, Malabar civet, Malabar giant squirrel, and a wide variety of endemic amphibians and reptiles.
17. What are the prominent wildlife species found in the Gangetic Plain biogeographical region?
The Gangetic Plain biogeographical region supports significant wildlife populations, including the Bengal tiger, Indian rhinoceros, Ganges river dolphin, Gangetic gharial, Indian wild ass, and several migratory bird species.
18. What are the major threats to the biodiversity of the Coastal biogeographical region?
The Coastal biogeographical region faces threats such as coastal erosion, habitat loss due to urbanization, pollution from industrial and domestic sources, and the destruction of mangroves and coral reefs, impacting the survival of marine and terrestrial species.
19. Why is the Northeast India biogeographical region considered a biodiversity hotspot?
The Northeast India biogeographical region is considered a biodiversity hotspot due to its high species richness, numerous endemic species, varied ecosystems like tropical rainforests and alpine meadows, and important conservation areas like Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park.
20. What are the key conservation initiatives taken for the Andaman-Nicobar Islands biogeographical region?
The Andaman-Nicobar Islands biogeographical region has witnessed various conservation initiatives, including the establishment of protected areas like the Campbell Bay and Galathea National Parks, to safeguard the unique biodiversity, coral reefs, and crucial habitats.
21. How do the biogeographical regions contribute to India’s overall ecological balance?
The biogeographical regions in India play a vital role in maintaining the country’s overall ecological balance by conserving diverse habitats, protecting endemic species, regulating climate patterns, supporting pollination and seed dispersal, and providing important ecological services.
22. How does the biogeographical diversity of India impact its agricultural practices?
India’s biogeographical diversity influences its agricultural practices by determining suitable crops, farming techniques, and crop varieties adapted to specific regions. The knowledge of biogeographical regions aids in understanding soil types, water availability, and agro-climatic factors for successful farming.
23. Are there any economic opportunities associated with India’s biogeographical regions?
India’s biogeographical regions offer various economic opportunities such as ecotourism, biodiversity research, sustainable forestry, organic farming, and the promotion of traditional knowledge and practices. These regions contribute to job creation and income generation for local communities.
24. What measures are taken to conserve and protect the biogeographical regions in India?
To conserve and protect the biogeographical regions in India, measures like the establishment of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves, implementation of wildlife protection acts, adoption of sustainable resource management practices, and raising awareness about conservation are undertaken.
25. How can individuals contribute to the conservation of biogeographical regions in India?
Individuals can contribute to the conservation of biogeographical regions in India by supporting local conservation organizations, practicing responsible tourism, promoting sustainable lifestyles, advocating for wildlife protection, participating in reforestation efforts, and spreading awareness about the importance of biodiversity conservation.